2 edition of Plant viruses. found in the catalog.
Kenneth Manley Smith
|Series||Methuen"s monographs on biological subjects|
|LC Classifications||SB736 .S5 1948|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||ix, 78 p.|
|Number of Pages||78|
|LC Control Number||49003868|
Cellular Pathogenesis Direct cell damage and death from viral infection may result from 1 diversion of the cell's energy, 2 shutoff of cell macromolecular synthesis, 3 competition of viral mRNA for cellular ribosomes, 4 competition of viral promoters and transcriptional enhancers for cellular transcriptional factors such as RNA polymerases, and inhibition of the interferon defense mechanisms. Serological properties : Many viruses are good antigens elicit strong antibody production when purified preparations are injected into a mammal and this property has been widely exploited to produce specific antibodies that can be used for virus detection and for examining relationships between viruses. When the new plants develop from the stems, roots, bulbs, etc. Satellite Viruses This is a computer model of a satellite tobacco necrosis virus. The example here shows Maize streak virus, genus Mastrevirus.
Attachment, or adsorption, occurs between the viral particle and the host cell membrane. Despite a growing list of viruses infecting wild plants, virus infections in wild plant communities are often underestimated relative to cultivated systems, since viruses in wild plants are generally considered not to harm the host. For example in the family Potyviridae, members of the largest genus Potyvirus are transmitted by aphids, while viruses in the genera Rymovirus and Tritimovirus are transmitted by mites of the genus Abacarus or Aceria respectively, those in the genus Ipomovirus are transmitted by whiteflies and those in the genus Bymovirus by plasmodiphorids root-infecting parasites once considered to be fungi but probably more closely related to protists. Indirect cell damage can result from integration of the viral genome, induction of mutations in the host genome, inflammation, and the host immune response. To enter the cells, proteins on the surface of the virus interact with proteins of the cell. Segmented genomes[ edit ] Some viral families, such as the Bromoviridae instead opt to have multipartite genomes, genomes split between multiple viral particles.
Recent significant progress in this research area is based on development of powerful in vivo and in vitro methods, including replicase assays, reverse genetic approaches, intracellular localization studies, genome-wide screens for co-opted host factors and the use of plant or yeast model hosts. At the other extreme, the virus is taken up into the vector, circulates within the vector body and is released through the salivary glands. Particle morphology : Amongst plant viruses, the most frequently encountered shapes are: Isometric: apparently spherical and depending on the species from about 18nm in diameter upwards. This was in contrast to bacteria microorganismswhich were retained by the filter. We will bring the chapter to a close by summarizing conclusions and offering potential research perspectives in this field. Understanding the virus genetics and protein functions has been used to explore the potential for commercial use by biotechnology companies.
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He lectured on agricultural botany there between and Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host.
He has published over peer-reviewed papers on plant virology, many reviews and four books including the previous edition of Plant Virology and Comparative Plant Virology.
In this chapter, we review the progress made in understanding the viral determinants involved in vascular transport of viruses and the pathways followed by viruses during systemic movement, and we do so mainly by focusing on host and environmental conditions that influence the final distribution of viruses in the plant.
Nested and multiplex PCR offer high sensitivity and the possibility to detect several targets in one assay, respectively.
As a group, viruses use all conceivable portals of entry, mechanisms of spread, target organs, and sites of excretion. Figure from Description Fruit distortion on eggplant fruit caused by Tomato bushy stunt virus.
Many examples of viral tissue tropism are known. Viruses also cause many important plant diseases and are responsible for huge losses in crop production and quality in all parts of the world. Most viral infections are subclinical, suggesting that body defenses against viruses arrest most infections before disease symptoms become manifest.
Infection does not always result in visible symptoms as witnessed by names such as Carnation latent virus and Lily symptomless virus, both members of the genus Carlavirus.
The stop codons of both of these genes are "leaky" and in a small percentage of cases, translation continues to produce a larger "readthrough" protein. Mites: these transmit viruses in the genera Rymovirus and Tritimovirus.
It includes those viruses with the largest known genomes up to aboutbase pairs and there is only one genome component, which may be linear or circular.
Data suggest that in spite of huge fecundity, the effective numbers of the within-host virus population may be small due to severe population bottlenecks at each stage of plant infection and colonisation, which results in a spatially structured population.
These protozoa are not phytopathogenic themselves, but parasitic. However, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in Viruses cause many diseases of international importance. Bibliografische Informationen. For example, a virus that has all the virulence characteristics except the ability to multiply at elevated temperatures is arrested at the febrile stage of infection and causes a milder disease than its totally virulent counterpart.
He also promoted the use of transgenic technology to the control of virus diseases and was in the forefront in discussing biosafety issues associated with this approach. In this chapter, we will review the biological mechanisms which allow the emergence of virus populations adapted to plant resistances and how we can use this knowledge to explain the relative durability of different resistance genes, to built predictors of resistance durability and to combine the use of resistances with other control methods to increase their sustainability.
In view of their relative simplicity and ease of production, plant virus particles or virus-like particles VLPs have attracted much interest over the past 20 years for applications in both bio- and nanotechnology. The ribosome translates a single protein from the viral genome. Viroids are thought to interfere with a plant's metabolism leading to underdevelopment.
Many of the proteins have multiple functions.OCLC Number: Description: pages illustrations 17 cm. Contents: Introduction --Symptomatology --Methods of dissemination of plant viruses --Relationships of plant viruses with their arthropod and other vectors --Physiology of plant virus diseases --Latent virus infoections in plants --Electron miscroscopy of plant viruses --Mechanical methods of inolucation --Testing for viruses.
Virology is the study of viruses, complexes of nucleic acids and proteins that have the capacity for replication in animal, plant and bacterial cells. To replicate themselves, viruses usurp functions of the host cells on which they are parasites. Pathogenesis is the process by which virus infection leads to disease.
Pathogenic mechanisms include implantation of the virus at a body site (the portal of entry), replication at that site, and then spread to and multiplication within sites (target organs) where disease or shedding of virus into the environment occurs.
Most viral infections are subclinical, suggesting that body defenses. III Uses of Plant Viruses in Plant Molecular Biology. IV Uses of Plant Viruses in Industry. References.
Section IV: Plant Virus Viromics. Chapter Plant Virus Viromics: Involvement of Genomes of Three Organisms—Virus, Host, and Vector. Summary. I Introduction. II The Virus.
III The Host. IV The Vector. V Virus–Host Interactions5/5. Plant viruses are viruses that affect hildebrandsguld.com all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a hildebrandsguld.com viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants.
Most plant viruses are rod-shaped, with protein discs forming a tube surrounding the viral genome; isometric particles are another common structure.
The major vectors of plant viruses are: Insects. This forms the largest and most significant vector group and particularly includes: Aphids: transmit viruses from many different genera, including Potyvirus, Cucumovirus and hildebrandsguld.com picture shows the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, the vector of many plant viruses, including Potato virus Y.